In the noninteracting case, the Hilbert space appropriate for a gauge field theory of any spin is a Fock space over the 1-particle space of solutions of the classical free gauge field equations for the same spin. (For spin 1, the associated particles would be noninteracting gluons if these would exist.)
This space is ghost-free. The differences for different spins just lie in the different structure of the classical field equations.
This Hilbert space can be described in many different but equivalent forms.
As the other answer mentions, it is usually represented by means of BRST cohomology, since this gives the most tracable renormalized perturbation theory. Here ghosts appear since the BRST Hilbert space is embedded in a bigger indefinite-inner-product space. (The ghost-free physical Hilbert space is recovered as the quotient of the kernel of the BRST charge $Q$ by the image of $Q$. Since $Q$ satisfies $Q^2=0$, it is analogous to the exterior derivative $d$, which satisfies $d^2=0$, and gives rise to BRST cohomology in the same way as $d$ gives rise to traditional de Rham cohomology.)
For an abelian gauge field theory, there are more elementary descriptions of the noninteracting Hilbert space. For example, a free quantum electromagnetic field resides in the Hilbert space of square integrable functions $A(p)$ of light cone momentum $p$ ($p^2=0,p_0>0$) in a degenerate but positive semidefinite inner product where all functions with $A(p)$ parallel to $p$ have norm zero. This gives the standard description of photons in quantum optics. (See, e.g., the entry ''What is a photon?'' in Chapter B2: Photons and Electrons of my theoretical physics FAQ at http://arnold-neumaier.at/physfaq/physics-faq.html .
The Hilbert space appropriate for an interacting gauge field theory is unknown.
This is not surprising as it is unknown for any interacting field theory in 4D.
The little that is known about the situation in this case can be found in a recent book by F. Strocchi, An introduction to non-perturbative foundations of quantum field theory, Oxford Univ. Press, 2013.
This post imported from StackExchange Physics at 2014-04-14 16:53 (UCT), posted by SE-user Arnold Neumaier