This answer addresses the geometrical origin of the Bohr-Sommerfeld condition.
In geometric quantization, the additional structure required beyond the
symplectic data of the phase space is a polarization. The quantization spaces are constructed as spaces of polarized sections with respect a polarization.
The most "obvious" type of a polarization is the Kahler polarization, where the quantization spaces are spaces of holomorphic sections of a pre-quantum line bundle. Simple examples of systems which can be quantized by means of a Kahler polarization are the Harmonic oscillator and the spin.
Another type of polarization is the real polarization (Please see for example the Blau's lecttures), which is locally equivalent to the polarization of a cotangent bundle. A real polarizations foilates the phase space (symplectic manifold) into Lagrangian submanifolds.
When the leaves are compact, the quantum Hilbert space consists of sections with support only on certain leaves, which are exactly those which satisfy the Bohr-Sommerfeld condition. In this case, the quantum phase space is generated by distributional sections supported solely on the Bohr-Sommerfeld leaves (This result is due to Snyatycki). For example in the case of the spin, the Bohr-Sommerfeld leaves are small circles
at half integer values of the $z$ coordinate in the two dimensional sphere. A more sophisticated example of Bohr-Sommerfeld leaves is the Gelfand-Cetlin system on flag manifolds.

Many classical phase admit both Kahler and real polarizations. It is interesting that in many cases the quantization Hilbert spaces are unitarily equivalent (i.e. the quantization is polarization independent). Please see for example Nohara's exposition.

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