- How to classifies the distinct "plasma" phases of matter?
- What theory classifies the distinct "plasma" phases of matter?
These questions do not really make sense (unless I am misunderstanding your point). A plasma is an ionized gas that exhibits a collective behavior similar to a fluid but is a kinetic gas. There are not multiple phases of plasma. There are collisional and collisionless plasmas though, i.e., those whose dynamics are governed by particle-particle collisions and those that aren't.
If you are asking what makes a plasma different from three standard phases of matter, then the answer is many things. For instance, a plasma is governed by instabilities and long-range interactions (i.e., Coulomb collisions).
How about the (iv) plasma?
Plasmas do have extremely large electrical conductivities, but they are not consistent with Type-I superconductors. In fact, plasmas are very different than both types of solid- and liquid-phase superconductors in that their dynamics are governed by electromagnetic fields.
Can plasma be a gapped or gapless phase? Do Landau-Ginzburg theory of symmetry and symmetry-breaking classifies plasma or not?
I cannot say whether Landau-Ginzburg theory applies to quark-gluon plasmas but it does not apply to electromagnetic plasmas like that in the solar wind.
What are the symmetry and the symmetry breaking here?
I do not think this type of phenomena really matters for most electromagnetic plasmas. It may be important near pulsars and/or magnetars where spin is very important and the particle gyroradii can be quantized. However, for most situations a plasma can be treated classically as a kinetic gas.
Are the classical E&M plasma and the quantum plasma the different phenomena?
Yes, electromagnetic plasmas are classical (except for the extreme cases I mentioned before) while quark-gluon plasmas are an entirely different beast mediated by different forces.
Are there something more exotic in plasma other than the Anderson-Higgs mechanism for the plasmon?
I think plasmons are primarily relevant to metals/solids. I do not think the Anderson-Higgs mechanism is relevant to a classical kinetic gas.
This post imported from StackExchange Physics at 2020-10-28 19:01 (UTC), posted by SE-user honeste_vivere