I am a beginner in QFT, and my question is probably very basic.
As far as I understand, usually in QFT, in particular in QED, one postulates existence of IN and OUT states. Unitarity of the S-matrix is also essentially postulated. On the other hand, in more classical and better understood non-relativistic scattering theory unitarity of S-matrix is a non-trivial theorem which is proved under some assumptions on the
scattering potential, which are not satisfied automatically in general.
For example, unitarity of the S-matrix may be violated if the potential is too strongly attractive at small distances:
in that case a particle (or two interacting with each other particles) may approach each other from infinity and form a bound state.
(However the Coulomb potential is not enough attractive for this phenomenon.)
The first question is why this cannot happen in the relativistic situation, say in QED.
Why electron and positron (or better anti-muon) cannot approach each other from infinity and form a bound state?
As far as I understand, this would contradict the unitarity of S-matrix.
On the other hand, in principle S-matrix can be computed, using Feynmann rules, to any order of approximation in the coupling constants. Thus in principle unitarity of S-matrix could be probably checked in this sense to any order.
The second question is whether such a proof, for QED or any other theory, was done anywhere? Is it written somewhere?
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