What I mean by confining is there is some Wilson surface with

$\langle \exp(i \int_\Sigma B)\rangle \sim \exp(- V)$,

where $B$ is our 2-form field and $\Sigma$ is some surface enclosing a volume V. I'd be interested if we know some examples of theories with this property.

One could imagine describing this as the existence of some dual condensate. In four spacetime dimensions, the dual would be a condensate of instantons. I know some examples in 3d where instantons proliferate, such as the confining-deconfining transition of 2+1d U(1) gauge theory. Perhaps these mechanisms can be made to work in 4d?