# MathJax basic tutorial and quick reference

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1. To see how any of the formulas were made in any question or answer, including this one, use the "edit" link to view the complete source. To quickly see the source of a single expression, right-click on it and choose "Show Math As > TeX Commands".

(Note that in some browsers, such as Firefox, the MathJax right-click menu that contains this command will be obscured by the browser's own right-click menu. Click somewhere outside the main browser canvas -- such as in the address bar -- to dismiss the browser menu and reveal the MathJax one behind it).

2. For inline formulas, enclose the formula in $...$. For displayed formulas, use $$...$$. These render differently: $\sum_{i=0}^n i^2 = \frac{(n^2+n)(2n+1)}{6}$ (inline) or $$\sum_{i=0}^n i^2 = \frac{(n^2+n)(2n+1)}{6}\tag{displayed}$$

3. For Greek letters, use \alpha, \beta, …, \omega: $\alpha, \beta, … \omega$. For uppercase, use \Gamma, \Delta, …, \Omega: $\Gamma, \Delta, …, \Omega$.

4. For superscripts and subscripts, use ^ and _. For example, x_i^2: $x_i^2$.

5. By default, superscripts, subscripts, and other operations apply only to the next "group". A "group" is either a single symbol, or any formula surrounded by curly braces {}. If you do 10^10, you will get a surprise: $10^10$. But 10^{10} gives what you probably wanted: $10^{10}$. Use curly braces to delimit a formula to which a superscript or subscript applies: x^5^6 is an error; {x^y}^z is ${x^y}^z$, and x^{y^z} is $x^{y^z}$. Observe the difference between x_i^2 $x_i^2$ and x_{i^2} $x_{i^2}$.

6. Parentheses Ordinary symbols ()[] make parentheses and brackets $(2+3)[4+4]$. Use \{ and \} for curly braces $\{\}$.

These do not scale with the formula in between, so if you write (\frac12) the parentheses will be too small: $(\frac12)$. Using \left(\right) will make the sizes adjust automatically to the formula they enclose: \left(\frac12\right) is $\left(\frac12\right)$.

\left and\right apply to all the following sorts of parentheses: ( and ) $(x)$, [ and ] $[x]$, \{ and \} $\lbrace x \rbrace$, | $|x|$, \langle and \rangle $\langle x \rangle$, \lceil and \rceil $\lceil x \rceil$, and \lfloor and \rfloor $\lfloor x \rfloor$. There are also invisible parentheses, denoted by .: \left.\frac12\right\rbrace is $\left.\frac12\right\rbrace$.

7. Sums and integrals \sum and \int; the subscript is the lower limit and the superscript is the upper limit, so for example \sum_1^n $\sum_1^n$. Don't forget {} if the limits are more than a single symbol. For example, \sum_{i=0}^\infty i^2 is $\sum_{i=0}^\infty i^2$. Similarly, \prod $\prod$, \int $\int$, \bigcup $\bigcup$, \bigcap $\bigcap$, \iint $\iint$.

8. Fractions There are two ways to make these. \frac ab applies to the next two groups, and produces $\frac ab$; for more complicated numerators and denominators use {}: \frac{a+1}{b+1} is $\frac{a+1}{b+1}$. If the numerator and denominator are complicated, you may prefer \over, which splits up the group that it is in: {a+1\over b+1} is ${a+1\over b+1}$.

9. Fonts

• Use \mathbb or \Bbb for "blackboard bold": $\mathbb{CHNQRZ}$.
• Use \mathbf for boldface: $\mathbf{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ}$ $\mathbf{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz}$.
• Use \mathtt for "typewriter" font: $\mathtt{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ}$ $\mathtt{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz}$.
• Use \mathrm for roman font: $\mathrm{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ}$ $\mathrm{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz}$.
• Use \mathcal for "calligraphic" letters: $\mathcal{ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ}$
• Use \mathscr for script letters: $\mathscr{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ}$
• Use \mathfrak for "Fraktur" (old German style) letters: $\mathfrak{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} \mathfrak{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz}$.
10. Radical signs Use sqrt, which adjusts to the size of its argument: \sqrt{x^3} $\sqrt{x^3}$; \sqrt[3]{\frac xy} $\sqrt[3]{\frac xy}$. For complicated expressions, consider using {...}^{1/2} instead.

11. Some special functions such as "lim", "sin", "max", "ln", and so on are normally set in roman font instead of italic font. Use \lim, \sin, etc. to make these: \sin x $\sin x$, not sin x $sin x$. Use subscripts to attach a notation to \lim: \lim_{x\to 0} $$\lim_{x\to 0}$$

12. There are a very large number of special symbols and notations, too many to list here; see this shorter listing, or this exhaustive listing. Some of the most common include:

• \lt \gt \le \ge \neq $\lt\, \gt\, \le\, \ge\, \neq$. You can use \not to put a slash through almost anything: \not\lt $\not\lt$ but it often looks bad.
• \times \div \pm \mp $\times\, \div\, \pm\, \mp$. \cdot is a centered dot: $x\cdot y$
• \cup \cap \setminus \subset \subseteq \subsetneq \supset \in \notin \emptyset \varnothing $\cup\, \cap\, \setminus\, \subset\, \subseteq \,\subsetneq \,\supset\, \in\, \notin\, \emptyset\, \varnothing$
• {n+1 \choose 2k} or \binom{n+1}{2k} ${n+1 \choose 2k}$
• \to \rightarrow \leftarrow \Rightarrow \Leftarrow \mapsto $\to\, \rightarrow\, \leftarrow\, \Rightarrow\, \Leftarrow\, \mapsto$
• \land \lor \lnot \forall \exists \top \bot \vdash \vDash $\land\, \lor\, \lnot\, \forall\, \exists\, \top\, \bot\, \vdash\, \vDash$
• \star \ast \oplus \circ \bullet $\star\, \ast\, \oplus\, \circ\, \bullet$
• \approx \sim \cong \equiv \prec $\approx\, \sim \, \cong\, \equiv\, \prec$.
• \infty \aleph_0 $\infty\, \aleph_0$ \nabla \partial $\nabla\, \partial$ \Im \Re $\Im\, \Re$
• For modular equivalence, use \pmod like this: a\equiv b\pmod n $a\equiv b\pmod n$.
• \ldots is the dots in $a_1, a_2, \ldots ,a_n$ \cdots is the dots in $a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n$
• Some Greek letters have variant forms: \epsilon \varepsilon $\epsilon\, \varepsilon$, \phi \varphi $\phi\, \varphi$, and others. Script lowercase l is \ell $\ell$.

Detexify lets you draw a symbol on a web page and then lists the $\TeX$ symbols that seem to resemble it. These are not guaranteed to work in MathJax but are a good place to start. To check that a command is supported, note that MathJax.org maintains a list of currently supported $\LaTeX$ commands, and one can also check Dr. Carol JVF Burns's page of $\TeX$ Commands Available in MathJax.

13. Spaces MathJax usually decides for itself how to space formulas, using a complex set of rules. Putting extra literal spaces into formulas will not change the amount of space MathJax puts in: a␣b and a␣␣␣␣b are both $a b$. To add more space, use \, for a thin space $a\,b$; \; for a wider space $a\;b$. \quad and \qquad are large spaces: $a\quad b$, $a\qquad b$.

To set plain text, use \text{…}: $\{x\in s\mid x\text{ is extra large}\}$. You can nest $…$ inside of \text{…}.

14. Accents and diacritical marks Use \hat for a single symbol $\hat x$, \widehat for a larger formula $\widehat{xy}$. If you make it too wide, it will look silly. Similarly, there are \bar $\bar x$ and \overline $\overline{xyz}$, and \vec $\vec x$ and \overrightarrow $\overrightarrow{xy}$. For dots, as in $\frac d{dx}x\dot x = \dot x^2 + x\ddot x$, use \dot and \ddot.

15. Special characters used for MathJax interpreting can be escaped using the \ character: \$$\$$, \{ \{, \_ \_, etc. (Tutorial ends here.) It is important that this note be reasonably short and not suffer from too much bloat. To include more topics, please create short addenda and post them as answers instead of inserting them into this post. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:07 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD asked Aug 27, 2012 retagged Apr 19, 2014 Most voted comments show all comments There isn't a standard notation for that, as far as I know. You could use \left\lfloor x+\frac12 \right\rfloor: \left\lfloor x+\frac12 \right\rfloor. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD Is the very first example meant to be a joke? \sum_{i=0}^n i^2 = \frac{2n^3+3n^2+n}{6}, while it is \sum_{i=0}^n i that equals \frac{n^2+n}{2}. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Donkey_2009 How do you symbolize the cross product? This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Lanae I usually use \times (\times). This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD What is the question? This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Peter Mortensen Most recent comments show all comments @MJD: I use \mathrm in many places; e.g. \mathrm{d}x in integrals and derivatives and for operator names that don't need the full force of \operatorname. \mathrm was intended for roman symbols in math mode; \text was intended for text because of the way it spaces things. See this TEX thread. Since I don't believe we can use preambles in MathJax, we can't use \DeclareMathOperator, though we can use \newcommand, but that is orthogonal to the use of \mathrm vs \text for math symbols. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user robjohn This is great. Why is this guide not linked on the main page? This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user user84059 ## 20 Answers + 21 like - 0 dislike # Matrices 1. Use $$\begin{matrix}…\end{matrix}$$ In between the \begin and \end, put the matrix elements. End each matrix row with \\, and separate matrix elements with &. For example, $$
\begin{matrix}
1 & x & x^2 \\
1 & y & y^2 \\
1 & z & z^2 \\
\end{matrix}
$$ produces:$$ \begin{matrix} 1 & x & x^2 \\ 1 & y & y^2 \\ 1 & z & z^2 \\ \end{matrix} $$MathJax will adjust the sizes of the rows and columns so that everything fits. 2. To add brackets, either use \left…\right as in section 6 of the tutorial, or replace matrix with pmatrix \begin{pmatrix}1&2\\3&4\\ \end{pmatrix}, bmatrix \begin{bmatrix}1&2\\3&4\\ \end{bmatrix}, Bmatrix \begin{Bmatrix}1&2\\3&4\\ \end{Bmatrix}, vmatrix \begin{vmatrix}1&2\\3&4\\ \end{vmatrix}, Vmatrix \begin{Vmatrix}1&2\\3&4\\ \end{Vmatrix}. 3. Use \cdots \cdots \ddots \ddots vdots \vdots when you want to omit some of the entries:$$\begin{pmatrix} 1 & a_1 & a_1^2 & \cdots & a_1^n \\ 1 & a_2 & a_2^2 & \cdots & a_2^n \\ \vdots & \vdots& \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 1 & a_m & a_m^2 & \cdots & a_m^n \end{pmatrix}$$4. For "augmented" matrices, put parentheses or brackets around a suitably-formatted table; see arrays above for details. Here is an example:$$ \left[\begin{array}{cc|c} 1&2&3\\ 4&5&6 \end{array}\right]$$is produced by: $$ \left[
\begin{array}{cc|c}
1&2&3\\
4&5&6
\end{array}
\right] The cc|c is the crucial part here; it says that there are three centered columns with a vertical bar between the second and third. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD answered Aug 28, 2012 by (0 points) What about augmented matrices? This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Michael Albanese Added instructions for that. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD Thanks, that's excellent. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Michael Albanese + 18 like - 0 dislike # Aligned equations Often people want a series of equations where the equals signs are aligned. To get this, use \begin{align}…\end{align}. Each line should end with \\, and should contain an ampersand at the point to align at, typically immediately before the equals sign. For example,\begin{align} \sqrt{37} & = \sqrt{\frac{73^2-1}{12^2}} \\ & = \sqrt{\frac{73^2}{12^2}\cdot\frac{73^2-1}{73^2}} \\ & = \sqrt{\frac{73^2}{12^2}}\sqrt{\frac{73^2-1}{73^2}} \\ & = \frac{73}{12}\sqrt{1 - \frac{1}{73^2}} \\ & \approx \frac{73}{12}\left(1 - \frac{1}{2\cdot73^2}\right) \end{align}$$is produced by $$\begin{align}
\sqrt{37} & = \sqrt{\frac{73^2-1}{12^2}} \\
& = \sqrt{\frac{73^2}{12^2}\cdot\frac{73^2-1}{73^2}} \\
& = \sqrt{\frac{73^2}{12^2}}\sqrt{\frac{73^2-1}{73^2}} \\
& = \frac{73}{12}\sqrt{1 - \frac{1}{73^2}} \\
& \approx \frac{73}{12}\left(1 - \frac{1}{2\cdot73^2}\right)
\end{align} This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD answered Aug 28, 2012 by (0 points) The AMS's Short Math Guide recommends the align environment over eqnarray in LaTeX. In MathJax the spacing seems to be the same , but align requires one less ampersand per line. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Rahul Thanks. I was not sure whether to discuss that. A detailed argument against eqnarray is in this article. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD Would you mind if I changed your example to use align then? This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Rahul @Rahul: Please go ahead and change anything that seems good to change. This is all CW. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD Also, if you think you have a better example, please use it; I used the first one I found. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD + 16 like - 0 dislike ## Definitions by cases Use \begin{cases}…\end{cases}. End each case with a \\, and use & before parts that should be aligned. For example, you get this:f(n) = \begin{cases} n/2, & \text{if $n$ is even} \\ 3n+1, & \text{if $n$ is odd} \\ \end{cases}$$by writing this:  f(n) = \begin{cases} n/2, & \text{if n is even} \\ 3n+1, & \text{if n is odd} \\ \end{cases}  The brace can be moved to the right:$$ \left. \begin{array}{l} \text{if $n$ is even:}&n/2\\ \text{if $n$ is odd:}&3n+1 \end{array} \right\} =f(n) $$by writing this: \left. \begin{array}{l} \text{if n is even:}&n/2\\ \text{if n is odd:}&3n+1 \end{array} \right\} =f(n)  To get a larger vertical space between cases we can use \\[2ex] instead of \\. For example, you get this:$$f(n) = \begin{cases} \frac{n}{2}, & \text{if $n$ is even} \\[2ex] 3n+1, & \text{if $n$ is odd} \\ \end{cases}by writing this: f(n) = \begin{cases} \frac{n}{2}, & \text{if n is even} \\[2ex] 3n+1, & \text{if n is odd} \\ \end{cases}  (An ‘ex’ is a length equal to the height of the letter x; 2ex here means the space should be two exes high.) This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD answered Aug 28, 2012 by (0 points) How to put only a \} on the right ? This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Mahdi Khosravi + 14 like - 0 dislike ## Arrays It is often easier to read tables formatted in MathJax rather than plain text or a fixed width font. Arrays and tables are created with the array environment. Just after \begin{array} the format of each column should be listed, use c for a center aligned column, r for right aligned, l for left aligned and a | for a vertical line. Just as with matrices, cells are separated with & and rows are broken using \\. A horizontal line spanning the array can be placed before the current line with \hline. For example,\begin{array}{c|lcr} n & \text{Left} & \text{Center} & \text{Right} \\ \hline 1 & 0.24 & 1 & 125 \\ 2 & -1 & 189 & -8 \\ 3 & -20 & 2000 & 1+10i \\ \end{array} $$$$
\begin{array}{c|lcr}
n & \text{Left} & \text{Center} & \text{Right} \\
\hline
1 & 0.24 & 1 & 125 \\
2 & -1 & 189 & -8 \\
3 & -20 & 2000 & 1+10i \\
\end{array}
$$ Arrays can be nested to make an array of tables. For example,$$ % outer vertical array of arrays \begin{array}{c} % inner horizontal array of arrays \begin{array}{cc} % inner array of minimum values \begin{array}{c|cccc} \text{min} & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3\\ \hline 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0\\ 1 & 0 & 1 & 1 & 1\\ 2 & 0 & 1 & 2 & 2\\ 3 & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 \end{array} & % inner array of maximum values \begin{array}{c|cccc} \text{max}&0&1&2&3\\ \hline 0 & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3\\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 2 & 3\\ 2 & 2 & 2 & 2 & 3\\ 3 & 3 & 3 & 3 & 3 \end{array} \end{array} \\ % inner array of delta values \begin{array}{c|cccc} \Delta&0&1&2&3\\ \hline 0 & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3\\ 1 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 2\\ 2 & 2 & 1 & 0 & 1\\ 3 & 3 & 2 & 1 & 0 \end{array} \end{array} As the source for the preceding array is long, please right-click on one of the tables and choose \mathsf{Show\ Math\ As\ }\blacktriangleright\mathsf{\ TeX\ Commands}. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user axblount answered Aug 29, 2012 by (0 points) You'll have to wrap the contents of each cell in \text if you don't want all italics, weird-looking spacing, an' odd apostrophes. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Rahul @RahulNarain: True. I used words just for illustration, but I guess the example was slightly misleading. If you'd like to modify it please go ahead. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user axblount Thanks! I like your numeric example better, since the widths of the entries are different enough that the alignment differences are visually clear. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD @robjohn how do you use | while typing , i don't find it in my keyboard...... This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Mr.ØØ7 @exploringnet: on my keyboard, it is the shifted backslash. It may be in different places (or absent) depending on your keyboard. On my mobile device (iPhone), it is in the shifted numerics, to the right of the backslash. In mathmode, \vert gives \vert and \mid gives \mid, but neither works in the column spec for an array. If you cannot type it on your keyboard, you can alwaays copy and paste it from another document. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user robjohn It should perhaps be mentioned, that in nested arrays there seems to be no option to synchronize column-widths and/or row-heights over the top-level. I didn't find a solution such that if two arrays are stacked vertically one could make their column-widths matching/fit. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Gottfried Helms + 12 like - 0 dislike ## Fussy spacing issues These are issues that won't affect the correctness of formulas, but might make them look significantly better or worse. Beginners should feel free to ignore this advice; someone else will correct it for them, or more likely nobody will care. Don't use \frac in exponents or limits of integrals; it looks bad and can be confusing, which is why it is rarely done in professional mathematical typesetting. Write the fraction horizontally, with a slash:\begin{array}{cc} \mathrm{Bad} & \mathrm{Better} \\ \hline \\ e^{i\frac{\pi}2} \quad e^{\frac{i\pi}2}& e^{i\pi/2} \\ \int_{-\frac\pi2}^\frac\pi2 \sin x\,dx & \int_{-\pi/2}^{\pi/2}\sin x\,dx \\ \end{array}$$The | symbol has the wrong spacing when it is used as a divider, for example in set comprehensions. Use \mid instead:$$\begin{array}{cc} \mathrm{Bad} & \mathrm{Better} \\ \hline \\ \{x|x^2\in\Bbb Z\} & \{x\mid x^2\in\Bbb Z\} \\ \end{array}$$For double and triple integrals, don't use \int\int or \int\int\int. Instead use the special forms \iint and \iiint:$$\begin{array}{cc} \mathrm{Bad} & \mathrm{Better} \\ \hline \\ \int\int_S f(x)\,dy\,dx & \iint_S f(x)\,dy\,dx \\ \int\int\int_V f(x)\,dz\,dy\,dx & \iiint_V f(x)\,dz\,dy\,dx \end{array}$$Use \, to insert a thin space before differentials; without this \TeX will mash them together:$$\begin{array}{cc} \mathrm{Bad} & \mathrm{Better} \\ \hline \\ \iiint_V f(x)dz dy dx & \iiint_V f(x)\,dz\,dy\,dx \end{array}$$This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD answered Aug 31, 2012 by (0 points) I think the first adjusted fraction looks better than the original, but I don't like the second. In any case, this minor spacing imbalance is too peripheral to belong in a basic MathJax tutorial IMO. Too likely to scare people away rather than make them feel helped. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Henning Makholm @Henning Do you mean that the fraction example is too unimportant even to appear in an addendum on fussy spacing, or that the fussy spacing article is too unimportant to appear as an addendum to the tutorial? This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD I was talking specifically about the fraction example. Mostly I'm concerned that somebody will come away thinking, Eeek! Do I have to worry about THAT to use the site? But it's also arguable that the disclaimer at the top of the answer ought to take care of that. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Henning Makholm @MJD I like the less space, but what if we want to list the bounds for multiple integrals? Like if we have say 3 integrals and we have 3 separate bounds for each how would we list each one? Or do we have to do \int_bound1^bound2\int_bound3^bound4\int_bound5^bound6?? This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user TheHopefulActuary @Kyle I think that's exactly what you do in that case. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD Worth nothing you can use \middle with | to get it to work with \left and \right, like \left\{x\middle | \frac{x^2}{2} \in \mathbb{z}\right\}: \left\{x\middle | \frac{x^2}{2} \in \mathbb{z}\right\} This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user asmeurer Thanks very much! I wanted to do that, but didn't know how. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD + 11 like - 0 dislike ## Symbols In general, you have to search in long tables about a specific symbol you're looking for, things like \Psi, \delta, \zeta, \ge, \subseteq ... And it turns out that this operation can be frustrating and time consuming, which can cause the buddy to abandon writing the complete \LaTeX sentence in his answer, or in some cases, the complete answer itself. That's why the tool that I will present you in this post was conceived. Basically, it is a \LaTeX handwritten symbol recognition. Example in image: Here is the website: Detexify² No more frustration. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:09 (UCT), posted by SE-user user93957 answered Oct 14, 2013 by (0 points) Amazing site!!! This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:09 (UCT), posted by SE-user Sush + 9 like - 0 dislike ## Continued fractions To make a continued fraction, use \cfrac, which works just like \frac but typesets the results differently:$$ x = a_0 + \cfrac{1^2}{a_1 + \cfrac{2^2}{a_2 + \cfrac{3^2}{a_3 + \cfrac{4^4}{a_4 + \cdots}}}}$$Don't use regular \frac or \over, or it will look awful:$$ x = a_0 + \frac{1^2}{a_1 + \frac{2^2}{a_2 + \frac{3^2}{a_3 + \frac{4^4}{a_4 + \cdots}}}}$$You can of course use \frac for the compact notation:$$ x = a_0 + \frac{1^2}{a_1+} \frac{2^2}{a_2+} \frac{3^2}{a_3 +} \frac{4^4}{a_4 +} \cdots$$Continued fractions are too big to put inline. Display them with $$$$ or use a notation like [a_0; a_1, a_2, a_3, \ldots]. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD answered Aug 31, 2012 by (0 points) The RHS of the following continued fraction$$ \cfrac{a_{1}}{b_{1}+\cfrac{a_{2}}{b_{2}+\cfrac{a_{3}}{b_{3}+\ddots }}}= {\genfrac{}{}{}{}{a_1}{b_1}} {\genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{}{+}} {\genfrac{}{}{}{}{a_2}{b_2}} {\genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{}{+}} {\genfrac{}{}{}{}{a_3}{b_3}} {\genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{}{+\dots}} $$can be typeset with the \genfrac command '{\genfrac{}{}{}{}{a_1}{b_1}} {\genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{}{+}} {\genfrac{}{}{}{}{a_2}{b_2}} {\genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{}{+}} {\genfrac{}{}{}{}{a_3}{b_3}} {\genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{}{+\dots}}' This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Américo Tavares I wonder if something like \frac12{\vphantom{1}\atop+}\frac34 would be good enough? It is much simpler. (\frac12{\vphantom{1}\atop+}\frac34) This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD Yes, it is. I didn't mention it because in User’s Guide for the amsmath Package it is written the following: "Note. For technical reasons, using the primitive fraction commands \over, \atop, \above in a LATEX document is not recommended (see, e.g., amsmath.faq)." This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Américo Tavares Happily, we are not writing \LaTeX documents here. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD Or write \underset{j=1}{\overset{\infty}{\LARGE\mathrm K}}\frac{a_j}{b_j}=\cfrac{a_1}{b_1+\cfrac{a_2}{b_2+\cfrac{a_3}{b_3+\ddots}}} to get$$\underset{j=1}{\overset{\infty}{\LARGE\mathrm K}}\frac{a_j}{b_j}=\cfrac{a_1}{b_1+\cfrac{a_2}{b_2+\cfrac{a_3}{b_3+\ddots}}}.$$This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Américo Tavares + 9 like - 0 dislike ## System of equations • Use \begin{array}…\end{array} and \left\{…\right.. For example, you get this:$$ \left\{ \begin{array}{c} a_1x+b_1y+c_1z=d_1 \\ a_2x+b_2y+c_2z=d_2 \\ a_3x+b_3y+c_3z=d_3 \end{array} \right. $$by writing this: $$
\left\{
\begin{array}{c}
a_1x+b_1y+c_1z=d_1 \\
a_2x+b_2y+c_2z=d_2 \\
a_3x+b_3y+c_3z=d_3
\end{array}
\right.
$$ • Alternatively we can use \begin{cases}…\end{cases}. The same system$$ \begin{cases} a_1x+b_1y+c_1z=d_1 \\ a_2x+b_2y+c_2z=d_2 \\ a_3x+b_3y+c_3z=d_3 \end{cases} $$is produced by the following code $$\begin{cases}
a_1x+b_1y+c_1z=d_1 \\
a_2x+b_2y+c_2z=d_2 \\
a_3x+b_3y+c_3z=d_3
\end{cases}
 • To align the = signs use \begin{aligned}...\end{aligned} and \left\{…\right. (see asmeurer's comment)\left\{\begin{aligned} a_1x+b_1y+c_1z&=d_1+e_1 \\ a_2x+b_2y&=d_2 \\ a_3x+b_3y+c_3z&=d_3 \end{aligned} \right. $$whose code is $$
\left\{
\begin{aligned}
a_1x+b_1y+c_1z &=d_1+e_1 \\
a_2x+b_2y&=d_2 \\
a_3x+b_3y+c_3z &=d_3
\end{aligned}
\right.
 • To align the = signs and the terms as in\left\{\begin{array}{ll}a_1x+b_1y+c_1z &=d_1+e_1 \\ a_2x+b_2y &=d_2 \\ a_3x+b_3y+c_3z &=d_3 \end{array} \right.use array with l (for "align left"; there are also c and r) parameters 
\left\{
\begin{array}{ll}
a_1x+b_1y+c_1z &=d_1+e_1 \\
a_2x+b_2y &=d_2 \\
a_3x+b_3y+c_3z &=d_3
\end{array}
\right.
$$ This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Américo Tavares answered Oct 3, 2012 by (35 points) Most voted comments show all comments how can i write equation in next line This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Maisam Hedyelloo Probably better to write it so that the variables and the = line up even if the systems don't match. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user asmeurer @asmeurer The best I can do is$$ \left\{\begin{aligned} a_1x+b_1y+c_1z&=d_1+e_1 \\ a_2x+b_2y&=d_2 \\ a_3x+b_3y+c_3z&=d_3 \end{aligned} \right. $$is produced by the code $$\left\{\begin{aligned} a_1x+b_1y+c_1z&=d_1+e_1 \\ a_2x+b_2y&=d_2 \\ a_3x+b_3y+c_3z&=d_3 \end{aligned} \right. $$$$ \left\{\begin{aligned} a_1x+b_1y+c_1z&=d_1+e_1 \\ a_2x+b_2y\phantom{===}&=d_2 \\ a_3x+b_3y+c_3z&=d_3 \end{aligned} \right. $$is produced by the code $$\left\{\begin{aligned} a_1x+b_1y+c_1z&=d_1+e_1 \\ a_2x+b_2y\phantom{===}&=d_2 \\ a_3x+b_3y+c_3z&=d_3 \end{aligned} \right. $$ This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Américo Tavares How to put only a \} on the right ? This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Mahdi Khosravi \left . x \right \} is \left . x \right \}. Item 7 of the main post has another example. This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD Most recent comments show all comments Thanks Americo!!! This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user ccc How can I add {} to a post?**\begin{cases}** gives only one side { .**\end{cases}** doesn't give he other side **}**please help! This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user ccc + 8 like - 0 dislike ## Colors Named colors are browser-dependent; if a browser doesn't know a particular color name, it may render the text as black. The following colors are standard in HTML4 and CSS2 and should be interpreted the same by most browsers:$$\begin{array}{|rc|} \hline \verb+\color{black}{text}+ & \color{black}{text} \\ \verb+\color{gray}{text}+ & \color{gray}{text} \\ \verb+\color{silver}{text}+ & \color{silver}{text} \\ \verb+\color{white}{text}+ & \color{white}{text} \\ \hline \verb+\color{maroon}{text}+ & \color{maroon}{text} \\ \verb+\color{red}{text}+ & \color{red}{text} \\ \verb+\color{yellow}{text}+ & \color{yellow}{text} \\ \verb+\color{lime}{text}+ & \color{lime}{text} \\ \verb+\color{olive}{text}+ & \color{olive}{text} \\ \verb+\color{green}{text}+ & \color{green}{text} \\ \verb+\color{teal}{text}+ & \color{teal}{text} \\ \verb+\color{aqua}{text}+ & \color{aqua}{text} \\ \verb+\color{blue}{text}+ & \color{blue}{text} \\ \verb+\color{navy}{text}+ & \color{navy}{text} \\ \verb+\color{purple}{text}+ & \color{purple}{text} \\ \verb+\color{fuchsia}{text}+ & \color{magenta}{text} \\ \hline \end{array}$$HTML5 and CSS3 define an additional 124 color names that will be supported on many browsers. Math StackExchange's default style uses a light-colored page background, so avoid using light colors for text. Stick to darker colors like maroon, green, blue, and purple, and remember also that 7–10% of men are color-blind and have difficulty distinguishing red and green. The color may also have the form #rgb where r, g, b are in the range or 09, af and represent the intensity of red, green, and blue on a scale of 0–15, with a=10, b=11, … f=15. For example:$$\begin{array}{|rrrrrrrr|}\hline \verb+#000+ & \color{#000}{text} & & & \verb+#00F+ & \color{#00F}{text} & & \\ & & \verb+#0F0+ & \color{#0F0}{text} & & & \verb+#0FF+ & \color{#0FF}{text}\\ \verb+#F00+ & \color{#F00}{text} & & & \verb+#F0F+ & \color{#F0F}{text} & & \\ & & \verb+#FF0+ & \color{#FF0}{text} & & & \verb+#FFF+ & \color{#FFF}{text}\\ \hline \end{array} \begin{array}{|rrrrrrrr|} \hline \verb+#000+ & \color{#000}{text} & \verb+#005+ & \color{#005}{text} & \verb+#00A+ & \color{#00A}{text} & \verb+#00F+ & \color{#00F}{text} \\ \verb+#500+ & \color{#500}{text} & \verb+#505+ & \color{#505}{text} & \verb+#50A+ & \color{#50A}{text} & \verb+#50F+ & \color{#50F}{text} \\ \verb+#A00+ & \color{#A00}{text} & \verb+#A05+ & \color{#A05}{text} & \verb+#A0A+ & \color{#A0A}{text} & \verb+#A0F+ & \color{#A0F}{text} \\ \verb+#F00+ & \color{#F00}{text} & \verb+#F05+ & \color{#F05}{text} & \verb+#F0A+ & \color{#F0A}{text} & \verb+#F0F+ & \color{#F0F}{text} \\ \hline \verb+#080+ & \color{#080}{text} & \verb+#085+ & \color{#085}{text} & \verb+#08A+ & \color{#08A}{text} & \verb+#08F+ & \color{#08F}{text} \\ \verb+#580+ & \color{#580}{text} & \verb+#585+ & \color{#585}{text} & \verb+#58A+ & \color{#58A}{text} & \verb+#58F+ & \color{#58F}{text} \\ \verb+#A80+ & \color{#A80}{text} & \verb+#A85+ & \color{#A85}{text} & \verb+#A8A+ & \color{#A8A}{text} & \verb+#A8F+ & \color{#A8F}{text} \\ \verb+#F80+ & \color{#F80}{text} & \verb+#F85+ & \color{#F85}{text} & \verb+#F8A+ & \color{#F8A}{text} & \verb+#F8F+ & \color{#F8F}{text} \\ \hline \verb+#0F0+ & \color{#0F0}{text} & \verb+#0F5+ & \color{#0F5}{text} & \verb+#0FA+ & \color{#0FA}{text} & \verb+#0FF+ & \color{#0FF}{text} \\ \verb+#5F0+ & \color{#5F0}{text} & \verb+#5F5+ & \color{#5F5}{text} & \verb+#5FA+ & \color{#5FA}{text} & \verb+#5FF+ & \color{#5FF}{text} \\ \verb+#AF0+ & \color{#AF0}{text} & \verb+#AF5+ & \color{#AF5}{text} & \verb+#AFA+ & \color{#AFA}{text} & \verb+#AFF+ & \color{#AFF}{text} \\ \verb+#FF0+ & \color{#FF0}{text} & \verb+#FF5+ & \color{#FF5}{text} & \verb+#FFA+ & \color{#FFA}{text} & \verb+#FFF+ & \color{#FFF}{text} \\ \hline \end{array}

You can have a look here for quick reference on colors in HTML.

This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user Vlad K.
answered Jun 29, 2013 by (0 points)
Test: ${\color{olive}E}\ {\color{purple}F}$ $\text{olive, purple}$.

This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:09 (UCT), posted by SE-user Américo Tavares
Could you please give an example of a RGB-encoded color?

This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:09 (UCT), posted by SE-user Américo Tavares

This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:09 (UCT), posted by SE-user Vlad K.
Thanks for the information.

This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:09 (UCT), posted by SE-user Américo Tavares
+ 7 like - 0 dislike

\implies ($\implies$) is a marginally preferable alternative to \Rightarrow ($\Rightarrow$) for implication.

There's also \iff: $\iff$

\to ($\to$) is preferable to \rightarrow or \longrightarrow for things like $f\colon A \to B$.

This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user leonbloy
answered Jun 13, 2013 by (0 points)
Why is it preferable?

This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user MJD
implies looks nicer as the arrow is longer and \to is quicker to right (and it's also what you say in your head while typing it). at least that's what I think.

This post imported from StackExchange Mathematics Meta at 2014-04-16 16:08 (UCT), posted by SE-user John Salvatierrez

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