What are the next generation physics experiments?

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The LHC and LIGO are two recent examples of hugely ambitious experiments in fundamental physics, both of which took decades to develop.

What are the next major experiments currently being planned and developed? What will they measure? What impact are they expected to have? And when are they expected to go live?

One example:

• eLISA due 2034

Developed by the ESA, eLISA will be the first dedicated space-based gravitational wave detector. Consisting of three probes spanning millions of kilometres, it will provide a hugely more accurate window to gravitational waves.

Possible signal sources: the usual GW stuff, the early phase of the big bang, and even speculative objects like cosmic strings.

I suggest, at some point, we collate all of the answers into a single community post.

This post imported from StackExchange Physics at 2016-04-20 16:45 (UTC), posted by SE-user lemon

asked Apr 18, 2016
edited Apr 21, 2016
ITER is admittedly more about technology than fundamental physics, but it is one of the largest single-purpose physics-focused research project ever in terms of dollars, participating organizations, timeframe or impact on human life.

This post imported from StackExchange Physics at 2016-04-20 16:45 (UTC), posted by SE-user james turner
@jamesturner: The main impact fusion has made on human life is per solar radiation and, if you absolutely have to count this, thermonuclear weapons. Fusion reactors are a very questionable investment for a number of reasons that deserve their own question (we had that discussion). If I can have a bet, I will put a good case of wine on ITER style reactors having essentially zero impact for another century, at the very least.

This post imported from StackExchange Physics at 2016-04-20 16:45 (UTC), posted by SE-user CuriousOne
maybe someone could write something about the diphoton, which is supposedly close to a $5\sigma$ significance.

This post imported from StackExchange Physics at 2016-04-20 16:45 (UTC), posted by SE-user AccidentalFourierTransform