**Introduction**: This is slightly edited and generalised version of a question I asked on the Physics Stack Exchange website. This question has a twin brother asked here on MO, only now we consider values of the Riemann zeta function $\zeta(n)$ where the function diverges: $n \leq 1$. I am especially interested in the physical interpretations, but I value geometrical/probabilistic or other interpretations highly as well. Recently, I also learned that some divergent series have a combinatorial interpretation as well. See this post on "The Everything Seminar". I am curious about such interpretations of divergent series as well.

**Body**: For my bachelor's thesis, I am investigating Divergent Series. Apart from the mathematical theory behind them (which I find fascinating), I am also interested in their applications in physics.
Currently, I am studying the divergent series that arise when considering the Riemann zeta function at negative arguments. The Riemann zeta function can be analytically continued. By doing this, finite constants can be assigned to the divergent series. For $n \geq 1$, we have the formula:

$$ \zeta(-n) = - \frac{B_{n+1}}{n+1} . $$

This formula can be used to find:

- $\zeta(-1) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} n = - \frac{1}{12} . $ This identity is used in Bosonic String Theory to find the so-called "critical dimension" $d = 26$. For more info, one can consult the relevant wikipedia page.
- $\zeta(-3) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} n^3 = - \frac{1}{120} $ . This identity is used in the calculation of the energy per area between metallic plates that arises in the Casimir Effect.

Furthermore, the sum $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}2^n $ converges to $-1$ in the 2-adic number system. I guess this could allow a geometric interpretation of this divergent sum, to a certain extent.

My **first question** is: do more of these values of the Riemann zeta function at negative arguments arise in physics/geometry/probability theory? If so: which ones, and in what context?

Furthermore, I consider summing powers of the Riemann zeta function at negative arguments. I try to do this by means of
Faulhaber's formula. Let's say, for example, we want to compute the sum of $$p = \Big( \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} k \Big)^3 . $$
If we set $a = 1 + 2 + 3 + \dots + n = \frac{n(n+1)}{2} $, then from Faulhaber's formula we find that $$\frac{4a^3 - a^2}{3} = 1^5 + 2^5 + 3^5 + \dots + n^5 , $$ from which we can deduce that $$ p = a^3 = \frac{ 3 \cdot \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} k^5 + a^2 }{4} .$$
Since we can also sum the divergent series arising from the Riemann zeta function at negative arguments by means of Ramanujan Summation (which produces that same results as analytic continuation) and the Ramanujan Summation method is linear, we find that the Ramanujan ($R$) or regularised sum of $p$ amounts to $$R(p) = R(a^3) = \frac{3}{4} R\Big(\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} k^5\Big) + \frac{1}{4} R(a^2) . $$
Again, we know from Faulhaber's Formula that $a^2 = \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} k^3 $ , so $R(a^2) = R(\zeta(-3)) = - \frac{1}{120} $, so $$R(p) = \frac{3}{4} \Big(- \frac{1}{252} \Big) + \frac{ ( \frac{1}{120} )} {4} = - \frac{1}{1120} . $$

My **second** (bunch of) **question**(s) is: Do powers of these zeta values at negative arguments arise in physics/probability theory/geometry? If so, how? Are they summed in a manner similar to process I just described, or in a different manner? Of the latter is the case, which other summation method is used? Do powers of divergent series arise in physics in general? If so: which ones, and in what context?

My **third and last** (bunch of) **question**(s) is: which other divergent series arise in physics/probability theory/geometry (not just considering (powers of) the Riemann zeta function at negative arguments) ?
I know there are whole books on renormalisation and/or regularisation in physics. However, for the sake of my bachelor's thesis I would like to know some concrete examples of divergent series that arise in physics which I can study. It would also be nice if you could mention some divergent series which have defied summation by any summation method that physicists (or mathematicians) currently employ. Please also indicate as to how these divergent series arise in physics, or how they can be geometrically/probabilistically/combinatorially interpreted.

This post imported from StackExchange at 2014-04-07 13:22 (UCT), posted by SE-user Max Muller