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We take causal structure to be some relation defined over elements which are understood to be morphisms of some category. An example of such a relation is a domain, another is a directed acyclic graph. Yet another is a string diagram in a symetric monoidal category.
Panangaden and Martin showed that interva domains are categorically equivalent to (hyperbolic?) spacetimes. This makes the domain a perfect candidated for clsssical relativistic causality. The planar graphs of the diagrammatical calculus are an enticing candidated for quantum causal structure. Then there is Hardy's causaloid. The classical causal structure seems very realist, as in we might believe in the existence of the set of events for a universe. I have offered the Fischer Impossibility result as a refutation of the naïve existence of this set.
What are the best candidates for a quantum causal structre?
It seems the FLP impossibility result may not hold for quantum systems (see this paper by Helm and section 5 of this paper for a criticism of the first), in which case you don't need any exotic causal structure for quantum mechanics to avoid it.
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