*[Again I am unsure as to whether this is appropriate for this site since this is again from standard graduate text-books and not research level. Please do not answer the question if you think that this will eventually get closed. Since otherwise the software doesn't allow me to delete questions once it has answers!]*

A priori the technique of quantization using the background gauge field seems to be a "mere" redefinition of the good old Lagrangian whereby one "artificially" seems to double the number of variables by writing all of the fileds like say the fermions $\psi$, the gauge field $A_\alpha^\mu$, the ghosts $\omega_\alpha$ and $\omega_\alpha ^*$ as a sum of two fields one with a prime (the quantum fluctuation) and one unprimed (the classical background) - like replace every $A_\alpha ^\mu$ by $A_\alpha ^\mu + A_\alpha^{\mu'}$. Till this step nothing seems to distinguish the primed from the unprimed fields.

Then one defines the a new set of covariant derivatives where the the connection is defined only by the classical background gauge field (the unprimed fields) only.

Then one rewrites the Lgrangian in terms of these new covariant derivatives and these doubled the number of fields. But I would think that the Lagrangian is still exactly the same and nothing conceptually has changed.

Now two statements come in which seem to be somewhat "magical" and thats where it seems that the crux lies,

Firstly one says that it is possible to set the background fields such that all the unprimed gauge fields are constant and every other unprimed field is 0.

Then one says that the 1-loop contribution to the running of the coupling constant (and also the effective action?) is completely determined by looking at only that part of the orginal action which is quadratic in the primed fields ("quantum fluctuations"?)

I would like to understand why the above two steps are consistent and correct and how to understand them. Also if there is some larger philosophy from which this comes out and if there are generalizations of this.

{This technique and idea seems quite powerful since after one says the above it is almost routine calculation to get the beta-function of a $SU(N_c)$ Yang-Mill's theory with say $N_f$ flavours - and hence asymptotic freedom of QCD! - things which I would think are corner stones of physics! }

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